The End.

For my last blog post, I want to discuss convergence. The Kardashian’s have taken social media by storm and have ‘broken the internet’ a few times too. Kylie Jenner, the youngest of the sisters began her life on the linear television show, Keeping Up With The Kardashians broadcast on the E! channel, from there she became a recognisable star.

Branding her own image using social media like Instagram, Vine and Snapchat where she shares pictures of fashion, promotes cosmetics and health products/food like Teatoxs’. Kylie is a big fan of Snapchat and creates Snapstories which is a short form of content which are hand held 10 second shots filmed from her phone where you see what she does during her day and where she also promotes her Kylie Lip Kit cosmetic line.

She now has personalised app where she share fashion tips, makeup tutorial, day to day vlogs as well as a radio show which can be accessed on her app via your phone or laptop. The radio show is a platform to listen to Kylie in an appointed time where she discuss ‘gossip’ and her favourite music at the moment.

Kylie uses convergence to advertise herself and her own brand using a number of platforms that are all interconnected and reach everyone on a global scale by advertising these herself and what is associated with her in a very personal way almost like Kylie is your “best friend” on social media.


Creative Common’s in the Media

In a lot of my own films I’ve made, using Creative Commons Music also known as Royalty free have been very usual when look for top quality soundtrack / music, it’s a website where you can share and use composers work without payment and often without being mentioned in the credit roll. However, this depends on the composer.

I use and most of is his work is downloadable for free and some other songs have a different licensing fee. The website, charge based of the license types. For example, it’s $22 USD (£15) for song usage on online videos compared to National Television which is $720 USD (£505) Having access to music was very useful as there are many website with different genres with the option to download soundtracks made by other people for your own content.

There are some composers that watermark their work by subtlety mention the name of their company in the soundtrack which you can’t edit out or the composer has other instructions for the producer like being mentioned in the credits.

If there was a strict copyright law, I feel like independent film makers and content creators would struggle accessing top quality soundtracks/ music. The advantage is that these composers are paid for the usage of the soundtrack but for the users, there are more limitations. For example, if you were on a tight budget and couldn’t hire a music composer, royalty free music would be something to rely on-  It wouldn’t be possible if there is tighter copyright control.

My mum worries more than I do

Since the invention of social media, I feel there’s a whole new type of privacy and security that is needed for users to be mindful about online. My parents have always taught me to be internet smart and aware about what I share online and who can see it, for my own safety and also that I have a clean profile for when I look for future jobs. My mum says they use “internet hacker companies” to scan through all your social media accounts for your to be boss, she worries. There have been countless of cases of people sharing things online that they shouldn’t of and had to face serious consequences.

I use Facebook the most out of all social media accounts and contains most of my information which is shared only my friends. If a random person were to search for me on Facebook and found my profile, they wouldn’t be able to see any information about me unless they added me. My parents and high school have always taught us to not share any personal information online, even with your my friends online.

I actually used to create content on Youtube where I would sit in front of the camera talking about topics and doing challenges, small hobby of mine at the time. Having a presence on Youtube which is public and creating content like I did and what many famous Youtubers do as well, you are in a spotlight for millions of people to see depending how on successful you were. You still have to be careful about what you share. For example, I wouldn’t share the following; phone number, address, school/ university, credit card details etc.

In conclusion, everyone has set different boundaries of safety for each other, people may share less/ more about themselves than you and I would. I feel it’s very important issue to be aware about and should be taught in schools. Our generation grew up with this technology and the every evolving internet which means we look at this differently than many other generations do but no matter what safety comes first when online.

A online community for students

The Student Room is a website where students around the world can discuss ideas and ask for advice related to university and students in general. Founded in 2002, the site has receive 45 million posts and has over 1.35 million members. I’m sure as students ourselves, we have encountered the Student Room looking for information and guidance.

The website has nine different menus heading as seen in the picture below, in each one there are a selection other sub headings to choose from. For example, the menu heading that says “University” has other headings like “Exam help” or “Freshers”, this helps direct you to what you are searching for a lot easier.

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I think online communities such as The Student room are very usual for our generation as it’s a place which feels exclusive to just students where guidances can be given whether if its a personal matter or help on a course. It also gives a personal feel to it as you are reading forums or given advice from students in the same situation which is very comforting to hear.

The limitations and challenges that The Student Room have is the fact that the advice given may not be accurate or disputes on forums could happen over disagreements.

In conclusion, I feel The Student Room accurately demonstrates what a positive online community is. In my own experience, I have definitely used it when looking for universities about wanted to know more about the university/course from a students perspective. It’s an online communities for  looks students to give and receive advice from other students who have experience similar situations or is a place for revision tips, student life advice and everything else.

Where do pigeons sleep at night?

We have all used Yahoo Answers at some point in our lives to figure out if your cold is just a cold and not some crazy disease and Andy from Ottawa, who’s had some experience in this field helped you out… Or for just general advice. It’s the perfect example of a content being shaped by its audience. Yahoo Answers was first launched in 2005  and is a blog site to share questions and receive answers from anyone with experience in areas of your inquiry.


On the site, you can rate/vote answers so they are seen first and trusted by most users. The picture below is a screen shot of  “Best cures for bee stings”. The first comment is marked “Best Answer” as seen below which ensure the users that this is a good answer.

In each comment, there is a “Source(s):”section to say where you have received your information on a topic, you are more likely to be marked as “Best Answer” if you are a professional with a very detailed response to a question or voted up by other users. However, some questions are best answered with users personal experiences.

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In conclusion, I feel like Yahoo Answers is a classic example of audiences participation and shaping  of content online, ideas and starting a conversation with one another.  Users around the world sharing opinions and helping each other.


The Webs


The internet has advanced lots since it was first created in the early 90’s with lots of new software and hardware being created. The terms Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 were formed, almost like stages of the internet and its developments.

Web 1.0 knowns are the first stage of the internet and was mostly made up of static webpages. Cormode, G. and Krishnamurthy, B. (2008), described users at the time of Web 1.0 as “consumers of content. In 1996, only 250,000 sites existed- Yahoo was one of the most popular sites at the time along with the search engine, Netscape.

In 2006, Web 2.0 was born with more than 80,000,000 sites and many advancements of the internet which now a place of “collective intelligence” as more users were publishing content. This term was made popular by Tim O’Reilly and Dale Dougherty where they described Web 2.0 as a “virtual community” that interacted with each other on social media like Facebook, MSN messenger etc.

Around this time Web 3.0, present day with over 800,000,000 + sites was discovered as convergence is now key. Not only do we create content, we share across all platforms and devices with the whole world as our audience. The internet has had a few upgrades as well, as it’s smarter. For example, you search for “Hotels in Paris” on Google and after head to Facebook or any other website that contains adverts, it will be showing you offers for hotels in paris in the advertisement. The internet has customised it for you.

In conclusion, there have been lots of improvements and advancements with the internet which have brought many great achievements. However, with the internet being more intelligent than it ever has, how do you feel about our information being used to “customise our experience”, is it a good or bad thing?

What’s next?

After reading ‘The History of the Internet in a Nutshell’ by Cameron Chapman, I was intrigued at the development of the internet in terms of the processes it went through. For example, the proposal for the World Wide Web took place in 1989 and two years later the first webpage was made. At the time, it was very basic but in the late 90’s, applications like email and search engines developed to what we have today.

Being a millennial child, I remember what the internet was like in it’s early years like dialling up to the internet and using CD-ROM’s instead of online computer games. I also remember my first social media account as well, it was a way at the time for everyone in high school to become ‘friends’ on Facebook and to see what you were up too. For the first time in my life, my life wasn’t so personal.

In conclusion, all traditional medians such as newspapers, radio, television etc have all converged into one or spread across multiple platforms or on just one device. Hardware and software has impacted the world in many positive and negative ways. After reading Chapman’s timeline, I wonder, what the future hold for the internet?

Chapman, Cameron. “The History of the Internet in a Nutshell.” Six Revisions. N.p., 15 Nov. 2009. Web. 1 Feb. 2016.